Tuesday, February 6, 2018

How Should Our City Be Designed?

A recent article described the ways in which many cities are not child-friendly, examining some of the possibilities for designing cities around urban children and their needs and desires. It led me to think about ways to engage children in thinking about their environments and imagining the elements of what would be in their views an ideal city. 

One approach would start with children considering their neighborhoods, which are smaller and more approachable spaces than trying to think about an entire city. Ask the children to draw pictures of their neighborhoods, making the drawings as detailed as possible. Then, for 3rd or 4th grade students and older, ask them to look at their completed drawings and make two lists, one list the things they most like about their neighborhoods and the other the things they like least. 

Have the students share, in groups or as one large group, their drawings and thoughts, and, for the older students, their lists.

Next, ask the students to draw pictures of what their neighborhoods would look like if they could design them. Again, ask them to make these drawings as detailed as possible. Then have them share these drawings and engage in a discussion about the most important things an ideal neighborhood would include. Some questions you might ask include:
  • What makes a neighborhood a good neighborhood?
  • What public features would you want your neighborhood to have (for example, accessible bus routes, subways, parks, recreations centers, play spaces, museums, sidewalks, open spaces)? 
  • What types of homes and businesses would you want there to be? 
  • How would you prefer to get around your neighborhood and city? Would you like to be able to walk, skateboard, bike,  take public transportation, or be driven around? 
  • What is the  most important thing a good neighborhood should have?
If desired, this activity could then move into a larger scale project involving designing a child-friendly city, and perhaps to some local advocacy around these issues.

Monday, January 22, 2018

Seen and Not Heard

I am working on a new book, Seen and Not Heard, which will be published by Rowman & Littlefield next year. The book considers the ways in which children, with a particular focus on children ages 5-12, are often not listened to, not take seriously, because of their status as children, and how life might be different if this were no longer the case. 

It seems to me that in the United States today, one of the last surviving almost universally acceptable prejudices is ageism — negative assumptions made about younger and older people based on their ages. Felt in a wide range of life situations, ageism manifests in, among other things, discriminatory practices, lack of or diminished autonomy, derogatory attitudes, and violence and neglect. One consequence of ageism is that what people of particular ages have to say is often ignored, patronized, or denigrated. 

This is a fact of life for most children.

Our attitudes toward children are, in fact, quite characteristic of judgments that have historically been made about many groups of people labeled as "inferior" in some way; not too long ago, for example, women were generally considered intellectually deficient and incapable of analyzing difficult and complex issues  and, therefore, not worthy of being heard. Sometimes when I hear an adult comment in a condescending way about a thoughtful remark made by a child — "Oh, that's so cute!" — I imagine how I would feel if that was the predominant response to speech by adult women.

Over the past 20-plus years, I have had the privilege of spending a lot of time listening to elementary school age children. To their thoughts and questions on a wide range of topics, including justice and fairness, art and beauty, goodness, identity, happiness, the environment, friendship, and life and death. It is constantly surprising to me that many adults don't see children as capable of taking on serious and complex topics, when in my experience they are so reliably eager to do so and so capable at it. One of the strengths children bring to the examination of the kinds of big questions they like to explore is a willingness to look straightforwardly at their own experiences and express candidly what they see, and to think imaginatively and openly about possible new ways to understand the world in which we live.

How might society be altered if adults recognized children as people capable of seeing clearly and contributing valuable insights about challenging issues? I believe that listening to children’s perspectives on issues such as justice, ethics, childhood, and death have the potential to both enrich children’s lives and enlarge our societal thinking about many important topics. If we really heard children, if we accorded them the respect due to people trying to think clearly and well about serious problems, in what ways might that change our world?

Tuesday, January 9, 2018


"Books! And cleverness! There are more important things - friendship and bravery . . .”
Hermione, age 11
From Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J.K. Rowling

Learning to make friends and figuring out what friendship involves is a significant part of the work of children, and once they enter school they spend more and more of their waking experience with their friends, in a way most adults no longer do. Frequently children mention having friends as essential to happiness. From school age through young adulthood, young people are often focused on making and keeping friends, and their friendships often influence their lives in deep and complex ways. As a result, many children spend time thinking about what makes someone a good friend and the importance of having friends.

A nice activity for stimulating reflection and discussion about friendship appears in the textbook I co-authored, Philosophy in Education: Questioning and Dialogue in SchoolsThe following description is adapted from the activity, which was created by Kelsey Satchel Kaul and Heather Van Wallendael when they were undergraduate students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 


Begin by giving each student one index card and asking the students to draw, without using representations of people (including stick figures, faces, and the like), a creative representation of a good friendship. Have the students then discuss their drawings in small groups, with students explaining why their drawings represent good friendships.

Bring the students back together and ask them to consider the following question as a large group: “What makes a friendship a good friendship?” Have the students contribute answers to this question based on their drawings, and then ask them if they would add anything else to the list.

After this general list is established, move to more specific questions on the nature of a good friendship:

  • Be sure to give the students about 10 seconds to think of their answers in silence before asking for hands.
  • Be prepared to acknowledge that several traits on the board are related. It might be helpful to use different colored markers to connect different traits as related to one another. For example, students might identify “trust” as the underlying reason for “feels safe to be around.”
  • If students disagree, be sure to ask them to respond specifically to one another, giving reasons in support of their positions.

Question 1: Which of the qualities on the board might be the most important to a good friendship? Why? 
This question can lead to a discussion about what is necessary for a good friendship and what is sufficient for a good friendship.

Question 2: Which quality on the board might be the most detrimental if it were absent? Why?
This question focuses on what is sufficient for a good friendship.

Question 3: If you could have a friend that had all of the listed traits except for one, which trait would you leave out?
This question gets at the least important trait. It may be argued that the traits that seem least important may not be necessary (and certainly not sufficient) traits for a good friendship.

The three questions above should foster a full discussion, but if you have more time (or want to extend the discussion into another class period), you might also take up the following questions:

A. Can non-human animals be friends to us? Can they be friends to each other? 
Refer to the phrase "a dog is man's best friend." What does the phrase really mean? In what ways can dogs or other animals make for better or worse friends than people?
Ask the students to related their answers back to the qualities on the board.

B. Are there different kinds of friends?
This question can focus on the differences between friends who are, for example, family, family friends, social media friends, school friends, neighbors, etc. Answers will vary.
Are there qualities on the list that are more important for different kinds of friends than for others? For example, perhaps "having fun" is more important for school friends, while "commitment to working through problems"might be more important for sibling friends.

Concluding Activity

  • Ask the students to review the list of qualities on the board and write about one that they believe is a strength for them and one that is a weakness for them, and why. Let them know that this writing will not be shared with other students.
  • Ask the students to write about which quality on the board they think is most important, and why.

Monday, December 11, 2017

The Story of Ferdinand

The Story of Ferdinand by Munro Leaf (illustrator Robert Lawson) is the story of a young bull, Ferdinand, growing up in Spain. Ferdinand, unlike all the other little bulls around him, does not spend his time running and jumping and butting heads with other bulls. Ferdinand likes "to sit just quietly and smell the flowers."

Ferdinand sits under his favorite tree all day by himself and smells the flowers. Sometimes his mother worries that he will be "lonesome by himself." But she sees that he is happy just sitting alone, so she lets him be.

Ferdinand grows up very big and strong, but he is not interested in being picked to fight at the bull fights in Madrid. However, one day five men come to pick the "biggest, fastest, roughest bull" to go to Madrid. Ferdinand, indifferent to all this, heads out to sit under his favorite tree, and accidentally sits on a bumble bee, who stings him. In pain, Ferdinand runs around "puffing and snorting, butting and pawing the ground as if he were crazy." The five men from Madrid see him and are thrilled to choose him for the bull fights.

On bull fight day the men take Ferdinand away in a cart to the ring in Madrid. Flags are flying, bands are playing, and "all the lovely ladies" have "flowers in their hair." When Ferdinand is led into the ring, announced as "Ferdinand the Fierce," he sees the flowers in the ladies' hair and he "just sat down quietly and smelled." No matter what anyone does, Ferdinand won't "fight and be fierce," but just sits there serenely. So he is taken home, where he can go back to sitting by himself under his cork tree. The story ends by telling us, "He is very happy."

The story raises questions about identity, community, respect and trust, and the nature of happiness, including:
  • Ferdinand seems to be different from all the other bulls, but that doesn't seem to bother him. Why do you think Ferdinand is so comfortable being different from others?
  • Is it acceptable not to participate in your community at all?
  • Why does Ferdinand's mother stop worrying about him and let him spend all his time alone?
  • Is Ferdinand lonely? Is there a difference between being lonely and being alone?
  • The story ends by telling us that Ferdinand is happy. What does it mean to be happy? 
  • Can you be happy spending all of your time by yourself? Can you be happy if you never spend time by yourself?

Monday, November 20, 2017

Fibs and Friendship

In Franklin Fibs, by Paulette Bourgeois and Brenda Clark, Franklin's friends are all boasting about the things they can do. Bear can climb to the top of the highest tree. Hawk can soar over the woods without ruffling a feather. Beaver can chop down a tree with just her teeth and use it to make her own dam. 

Franklin wonders what to say. He forgets all the things he can do  slide down a riverbank by himself, count forwards and backwards, etc. and so he fibs, saying that he can eat seventy-six flies in the blink of an eye. Doubtful, his friends egg him on to prove it. Franklin gobbles six flies, and when his friends question him, he claims that he could have eaten seventy more. 

Franklin ponders what he should do now. Should he practice until he can eat seventy-six flies in the blink of an eye? Should he desert his friends so they'll never know he lied to them? Should he come clean? 

The next day, Franklin meets up with his friends and admits that he can't eat seventy-six flies in the blink of an eye. "But," Franklin says, "I can eat seventy-six flies." Franklin's friends sigh. Franklin makes a pie with seventy-six flies and eats the entire fly plate. His friends are impressed. The story ends with Franklin about to brag that he can eat two fly pies in a gulp, but he thinks the better of it.

The story raises interesting questions about the distinction between "fibbing" and lying, and the relationship between telling the truth and friendship, such as:
Why did Franklin tell a fib in the first place?
Is "fibbing" the same as lying? If not, what is the difference?
Is it ever okay to lie?
Is lying for a greater good okay? In what cases would lying be acceptable?
Why did it take Franklin so long to tell the truth?
Does lying sometimes improve our relationships? Does it hurt them? What about fibbing?
Is truth important in friendship?

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Why This Matters

When I first founded the Center for Philosophy for Children in 1996, very few people in the United States were working or interested in introducing philosophy to children and youth. It has been gratifying to observe in recent years how the movement to introduce philosophy into schools and to reclaim its importance as a core academic subject is gaining ground.  Dozens of programs introducing philosophy into the K-12 curriculum have been started at universities across the country, and more and more teachers are becoming interested in bringing philosophical inquiry into their classrooms. 

There are a wealth of ways to bring philosophy into K-12 education: philosophers in the schools programs and workshops for teachers like the ones our center has been running for the past 20 years in Seattle, after-school philosophy sessions and other resource programs, high school philosophy classes and philosophical inquiry across the curriculum, dual enrollment programs, philosophical sessions built around an already-existing classroom curriculum, etc. Philosophy doesn't have to be offered as a stand-alone subject in schools, but can be part of what is already being done in the classroom, as every subject contains multiple philosophical questions. Philosophy can also be offered to young people outside of school, in philosophy clubs, High School Ethics Bowl programs, summer camps, after-school and weekend programs, etc.

Five years ago, a group of us founded the Philosophy Learning and Teaching Organization (PLATO), which is developing a national network of people engaged in K-12 philosophy and which provides education for teachers about ways to introduce philosophy in their classrooms, supports faculty, graduate students, and others working in this field, and advocates in both the philosophical and educational communities for more philosophy in schools. The website includes a toolkit that provides a wide range of resources for doing philosophy with young people.

This work matters. 

It matters because philosophy gives young people an avenue for exploring questions that matter deeply to them, questions such as the nature of identity, the meaning and purpose of being alive, and whether we can know anything at all. 

It matters because it involves taking children and youth seriously as people who have something to offer to our national conversations about issues of justice, the environment, friendship, and education. 

It matters because philosophy is one of the best disciplines for developing strong critical thinking skills, and, because philosophy involves unsettled and contestable questions, discussing philosophical issues with others teaches us that there are multiple ways of understanding the world. 

And it matters because philosophy encourages wondering. Although wondering is a part of life for most children, as they grow up many of them absorb the message that wondering is not a valuable way to spend one's time, that it is impractical, frivolous, and doesn't lead to anything important. This is a shame. I believe that wondering about our experiences and life's puzzles is at the core of being a human being. It's vital for all of us to keep wondering, to remain alive to the mysteries of the human condition and the world in which we live. Engaging in philosophy with children, modeling for them our continued engagement in wondering, demonstrates to them that we think it's a meaningful part of life.

Monday, October 23, 2017

The Important Things in Life, and Rules that Help Us Keep Them

In two fifth grade classrooms at John Muir Elementary School last week, I read to the students chapter 12 from E.B. White's Stuart Little, in which Stuart, who, despite being the son of human parents, looks exactly like and is the same size as a field mouse, has taken a one-day job as a substitute teacher. He tells the class that he would like to be “Chairman of the World,” asking them what they think is important and suggesting that the world needs some rules to run properly. The students suggest rules like, “No stealing,” “No being mean,” and “Don’t kill anything except rats.”

After reading the chapter, I asked the students what they thought were the important things in life. Their responses included family, school, education, food, candy, friends, nature, books, technology, and ice cream. I then asked them what in their view were the important things in school, and they mentioned various subjects, having a dedicated teacher, paying attention, and helping other people. We talked about how in order to ensure these things, classrooms needed some rules.

Using an activity created by my colleague David Shapiro, I then distributed an index card to each student and asked them to imagine that their classroom this year would be governed by just one rule, and to decide what that rule should be. The students all wrote their answers down, without including their names, and I collected them and redistributed them so that no one received their own card. The students then broke up into groups of two and decided which of the two rules they had received was the most important, and we took the remaining 12 or so rules and handed 2 rules each to groups of four students, and each group decided which rule was more important.

I put the 6 chosen rules up on the board and asked the students if any of them was inclined to make an argument (expressing a view and giving reasons for it) for whether one of the rules should stay or go. The students were very engaged in this, and in one classroom, the rules we ended up with included, "No bullying" and "No being mean," and we had a long conversation about whether one of these included the other. Many students argued that bullying always involved being mean, but that you could be mean without bullying, and so keeping "No being mean" as the one rule would necessarily prohibit "No bullying." Towards the end of the conversation, however, a student made an interesting argument, claiming that you could bully someone without being mean and giving the example of consistently giving someone really terrible advice, which wouldn't involve being mean because you were being kind and advising the person, but in a way that would ultimately cause them great harm and be a form of bullying. I'm not sure I agree, but I thought it was an inventive argument.

In the other classroom, the final six rules included, "Be the best person you can be." Towards the end of the session, a student asserted that this should be the only rule, because, she argued, if each student is being the best person he or she can be, then the other rules, which included "Do something when asked," "Keep each other happy," and "Be respectful to yourself and others," would all be part of being the best person you can be.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Gaston by Kelly DiPucchio, and Identity

In the picture book Gaston by Kelly DiPucchio (illustrations by Christian Robinson), a bulldog named Gaston is part of a family of poodles. Although it does not come easily to him, Gaston learns to be prim and proper like the rest of the poodles. One day, Gaston and his family meet a family of bulldogs, and Gaston looks just like all of them except for Antoinette, a poodle, who looks just like Gaston's family.  

The parents of each family surmise that the puppies must have been accidentally switched, so Gaston goes to live with the bulldogs and Antoinette with the poodles. Both Gaston and Antoinette soon learn, however, that they don’t feel at home with their “blood” families; Gaston is too gentle for the bulldogs, and Antoinette is too rough for the poodles. The puppies switch back and are happy to be with their original families once more. 

The story ends with an epilogue in which Gaston and Antoinette raise a family of their own, teaching their puppies to be “whatever they wanted to be.”

The story raises questions about identity, including:

What parts of us are important to defining who we are? What parts aren’t as important?
How much of your personality and beliefs come from your parents?
Are we necessarily more like the people we look like?
What kind of person do you want to be? What kind of person does your family or friends want you to be?
What kinds of things can we gain and learn from making friends with different kinds of people?
To foster an inquiry about these questions in a classroom, give each student an index card before reading the story. Ask the students to write down the three most important words or phrases that describe who they are. They could be anything, from something about their bodies, their families, their backgrounds, their interests, or whatever else they find important. You can also frame it as the three things they would say first about themselves when first meeting someone.
When everyone is done writing down their responses, ask the students to share what they have written. Students will likely give a wide range of answers, and often their answers are quite different from what many adults would say. Whereas adults might respond with things like their jobs, their genders, and their ethnicities, children might list their pets or favorite school subjects as the things most important to defining them.
After the initial exercise and reading the story, the discussion can use Gaston’s journey to understanding himself as a way to begin exploring how the students understand themselves and their identities.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Big Questions and How We Answer Them

I developed this activity a couple of years ago and often use it in the early part of the school year. I have found that it engages most students and leads to interesting conversations, often lasting 2-3 class sessions. Part of the activity is based on an exercise created by Matthew Lipman and Ann Gazzard in Getting Our Thoughts Together: Instructional Manual to Accompany Elfie, 2003.

The activity begins by grouping students into groups of three or four. Each student is handed a blank index card. Then each group is handed an index card on which is written one of the following questions:
  • Do you have to see, hear, or touch something in order to believe it exists?
  • Are you responsible for the environment?
  • Are mistakes good or bad?
  • Should you always agree with your friends?
  • What is more important, to be happy or to do the right thing?
  • Are numbers real?
  • Is life fair?
Each group is given a different question.
Next, the students are asked to answer the question given to their group by writing their individual answers on their blank index cards, without talking to anyone else. At this point they do not need to give reasons for their answers.
Once the students are done writing, tell them to listen to all of the instructions before they do anything.
  • If you think that the answer you wrote down is completely true, put your head down on the desk.
  • If you think that your answer is mostly true, stay seated.
  • If you think that your answer is only slightly true, raise your hand.
  • If you no longer think that your answer is true, stand up.
After they’ve done this, ask the students who are standing why they decided that their answers were no longer true. Facilitate a brief discussion about this.

Then ask all the students to sit back down with their groups. Give each group another blank index card. Each student will then share with his or her group their answers to the question the group was given, and the group should decide on an answer with which they all agree. Then they should choose one student to be the group’s scribe, and that student will write the group’s answer(s) on the group’s index card, along with 2-3 reasons the group comes up with to support their answer.

The next part of the activity works best if the students can come together in one circle, with each group sitting together.

Start by asking one of the groups to read their question and answer, along with the reasons for their answer.
Then instruct the other students:
  • If you are completely convinced by the group’s reasoning, put your head down.
  • If you are mostly convinced by the group’s reasoning, stay seated and do nothing.
  • If you are only slightly convinced by the group’s reasoning, raise your hand.
  • If you are not at all convinced by the group’s reasoning, stand up.
Ask the students who are not at all convinced why this is so. Then facilitate a brief discussion with the whole group about the question and the reasons for answering it in various ways.

Repeat this process with each group, spending time having a discussion about each of the questions. If there’s time and the students are engaged in these discussions, this can take two or three sessions.

Time permitting, it’s nice to end with a reflection question to which the students can respond in writing, in philosophy journals or just on paper, such as:
Did your view or your reasons change as you discussed the question with your group and then the whole class? Why or why not?
Students often struggle to come up with good reasons for their views, and working with a group to explain to the class why they think a given answer is a good one helps them think more deeply about what they believe and why. The whole class discussions about each question are deepened by having the group of students who have already thought about the question lead off the conversation. This activity is reliably engaging for students and allows every student to be involved.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Do I need this or just want it?

Distinguishing between what we need and what we want is challenging for all of us, children and adults. One of my colleagues at the Center for Philosophy for Children, Karen Emmerman, has developed a great classroom exercise for thinking about the differences between wants and needs.

Step One: Identifying Wants and Needs
Give the students a handout with the following questions:
1. What are some things you want?
2. What are some things you need?
3. What is the difference between what you want and what you need?
4. Do all people have the same wants?
5. Do all people have the same needs?
6. What should we do if what one person wants conflicts with what another person needs?
Give the students sufficient time to think about their responses and write them on their handouts. 
Step Two: Distinguishing Wants and Needs
When everyone has had a chance to think about the above questions, facilitate a large group conversation, using two lists on the board: Wants and Needs. This generally spurs a discussion about the difference between wants and needs and whether something that is a want for one person could count as a need for another. 

It is likely that you will not get through the whole list of questions in one session, so you can pick up where you left off in a later philosophy session. This exercise could take a few sessions to get through if you find you are having rich discussions.
Step Three: Ranking Needs
Provide students with the following list of needs (make any adjustments you’d like) and a blank numbered list from 1 to 10. Ask them to rank the needs with 1 the most important and 10 the least important. 

• Safe shelter
• Food
• Education
• Water
• Family (it’s helpful to clarify you don’t mean literally having parents since clearly we need to have had parents in order to exist; this is more about having people who love you and help care for you)
• Friends
• Clothes
• Medical Care
• Pets
• Ability to pursue projects or interests that help define who you are (depending on the age of the children, you may want to alter the language here; this item is aimed at the sorts of life projects that give life meaning and make it worth living, like working to become a poet or being excellent at sports).
It is helpful to have the students work in groups of 4-6 for step three. These allows them to think together and work through any disagreements about the rankings.

When the groups have finished ranking the needs, pull the class together as one group and ask each group to report what they put first through fifth. This works better than going through their lists one number at a time. 
Finally, facilitate a discussion about the differences in the rankings. Why do some groups think food is more important than education? Why did other groups think medical care is most important? After this discussion is over, go through their rankings for sixth through tenth. 
These discussions should lead students (and teachers!) to think more carefully about what constitutes wants and needs, and how to distinguish between the two.